2024 Iranian strikes in Israel

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Operation True Promise
2024 Iranian strikes on Israel
Part of the 2024 Iran–Israel conflict, Iran–Israel conflict during the Syrian civil war, and spillover of the Israel–Hamas war
Iranian missiles seen from near the Dome of the Rock in the Old City of Jerusalem
TypeMissile strike, suicide drone strike
Locations
Weapons launched from Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Yemen
Commanded by
ObjectiveDamaging or destroying Israeli military facilities used in the Israeli bombing of the Iranian embassy in Damascus, in reprisal for that attack
Date13–14 April 2024[2]
Executed by
OutcomePer Israel:

Per Iran:

Casualties1 Israeli civilian critically injured by shrapnel;[6] 31 others treated for minor injuries or anxiety[7][8][9]
Iron Shield
Defence against the 2024 Iranian strikes on Israel
TypeAir defence operation, missile defence operation
Locations
Commanded by
TargetIncoming Iranian missiles and suicide drones
Executed by
OutcomeWeapons intercepted:
  • 84% per Israeli air defense researchers based on satellite and video footage[11]
  • 99% per Israel[12]

On 13 April 2024, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), a branch of the Iranian military, in collaboration with the Islamic Resistance in Iraq,[3] Lebanese group Hezbollah, and the Yemeni Houthis, launched attacks against Israel and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights[note 2] with drones, cruise missiles, and ballistic missiles.[13] The attack was codenamed by Iran as Operation True Promise (Persian: وعده صادق, romanizedva'de-ye sādeq).[14][15] Iran said it was retaliation for the Israeli bombing of the Iranian embassy in Damascus on 1 April,[16] which killed two Iranian generals.[17] The strike was seen as a spillover of the Israel–Hamas war and marked Iran's first direct attack on Israel since the start of their proxy conflict.[18]

Several countries in the Middle East[note 3] preemptively closed their airspace a few hours prior to Iran launching a standoff attack against Israel around midnight on 13 April. Iran's attack involved around 170 drones, over 30 cruise missiles, and more than 120 ballistic missiles directed against Israel and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.[note 2] A coalition of several countries operated in defense of Israel. The Israel Defense Forces used Arrow 3 and David's Sling systems to shoot down the incoming weapons[19][20] with help from the American, British, French, and Jordanian air forces.[21][22][23] France, which intervened at the request of Jordan,[24] deployed its navy to provide radar coverage. Jordan stated that it had intercepted objects flying into its airspace to ensure its citizens' safety.[25]

Israel stated that 99 percent of the drones and missiles were destroyed by the coalition[26][27][28] as part of the defense codenamed Iron Shield,[29] most before entering Israeli airspace.[30] A US official said that at least nine Iranian missiles had struck two Israeli airbases, causing minor damage.[4] Some of the ballistic missiles were shot down in space by the Arrow system.[31] The missiles caused minor damage to the Nevatim Airbase in southern Israel, which remained operational.[32][33][34] In Israel, a 7-year-old Israeli Bedouin girl was struck and injured by part of a missile, and thirty-one other people either suffered minor injuries while rushing to shelters or were treated for anxiety. Jordan reported some shrapnel falling on its territory, causing no significant damage or injuries.[32][33] The next day, Iran's envoy to the United Nations stated that the attacks "can be deemed concluded".[35]

The attack was the largest attempted drone strike in history,[36][37] intended to overwhelm anti-aircraft defenses. It was the first time since Iraq's 1991 missile strikes that Israel was directly attacked by the military of another state.[38] Iran's attacks drew criticism from the United Nations, several world leaders, and political analysts, who warned that they risk escalating into a full-blown regional war.[39][40][41][42] Israel retaliated by executing very limited strikes on Iran on 18 April 2024.[43]

Background

Since 2010, Iran (and others) have accused Israel of killing Iranian nuclear scientists inside Iran.[44] In 2018, Israeli spies raided an Iranian military facility in Tehran.[44][45] In February 2022 Israel is accused of having assassinating an Iranian commander in Tehran.[44] Iran also accused Israel of attacking a military facility in Isfahan in January 2023.[44]

On 7 October 2023, Hamas, a militant organization supported by Iran and Qatar, carried out an attack in southern Israel, resulting in the deaths of 1,139 people and the kidnapping of at least 253 other Israeli and international citizens. Israel responded by launching the ongoing Israeli invasion of the Gaza Strip, which, according to the Hamas-run Gaza Health Ministry, has resulted in the deaths of more than 33,000 people so far.[46]

After 7 October, the Iranian-backed proxy Hezbollah in Lebanon began attacking northern Israel.[47] There have been over 4,400 violent incidents recorded between Hezbollah and Israel since the start of the war,[48] and about 100,000 Israelis have been evacuated from northern Israel since the beginning of the conflict.[49] The Iranian-backed Houthi movement has launched dozens of drones and ballistic missiles towards Israel, and have hijacked and attacked ships in the Red Sea, severely restricting the flow of trade through the Suez Canal.[50]

The destroyed annex building adjacent to the Iranian embassy in Damascus

On 1 April 2024, the Iranian consulate annex building adjacent to the Iranian embassy in Damascus, Syria, was struck by an Israeli airstrike, killing 16 people, including a woman and her son, and Brigadier General Mohammad Reza Zahedi, a senior Quds Force commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), and seven other IRGC officers, in addition to six other militants belonging to Hezbollah and other Iran-linked militias. Soon after the attack, Iran vowed to retaliate,[51][52] with reports suggesting this as a potential motive for the airstrike.[53] The Jerusalem Post reported the building was inside the Iranian diplomatic compound, adjacent to the main embassy building.[54][55] Numerous countries and international organizations condemned the attack; the United States denied involvement or prior knowledge,[56] though Russia's representative in the UN has questioned this claim, calling it "surprising", noting that the US "always possesses information on any topic firsthand thanks to its intelligence capabilities".[57]

In the weeks following the attack on the consulate, the United States, France, Germany and the United Kingdom all warned Iran not to attack Israel and escalate the situation.[58][59][60] Iran was warned by Israel that such an attack could lead to a direct Israeli military response on Iranian soil.[61] In early April 2024, Iran sent a message via the Swiss embassy (United States Interests Section in Iran) to the United States, threatening to attack the United States' military bases in the region in case of their support of Israel in a possible Iranian attack on Israel.[62][63][64] According to Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian, Iran gave the regional countries hosting US military bases 72 hours' notice of the imminent attack,[65][66] but the parties involved varied in their description of the timing and detail of the warning from Iran.[67][68] Iran held off on attacking for 12 days and messaged via diplomatic channels that it is not interested in waging a full-scale war.[69]

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Israel has occupied the Palestinian territories since 1967. Since 1979, the Iranian government has actively supported the Palestinian people.[70] On 7 October 2023, Hamas carried out an attack in southern Israel, resulting in the deaths of 1,139 people and the kidnapping of at least 253 other Israeli and international citizens. Though Hamas has been supported by Iran in the past, US intelligence officials believe that Iran did not have any involvement in the October 7 attacks.[71] Israel responded by launching the ongoing Israeli invasion of the Gaza Strip, which, according to the Hamas-run Gaza Health Ministry, has resulted in the deaths of more than 33,000 people so far.[72]

Lebanese border

In 1982, Israeli invaded Lebanon; soon after Iran helped create Hezbollah to resist the Israeli occupation of south Lebanon that lasted till 2000.[73] Hezbollah has long pledged solidarity with the Palestinians.[73] As Israel began bombing the Gaza Strip in October 2023, Hezbollah retaliated by attacking northern Israel.[74] There have been over 4,400 violent incidents recorded between Hezbollah and Israel since the start of the war,[75] and about 100,000 Israelis have been evacuated from northern Israel since the beginning of the conflict.[76] The Iranian-backed Houthi movement has launched dozens of drones and ballistic missiles towards Israel, and have hijacked and attacked ships in the Red Sea, severely restricting the flow of trade through the Suez Canal.[77]

Attack

Launching of missiles and drones

File:Iranirondome.webm
Missiles seen from Jerusalem

On the evening of 13 April 2024, Iran launched a drone and missile attack on Israel, targeting—among other unconfirmed trajectories—sites in the Golan Heights and Arad region and two airbases in the Negev desert.[13][78][79][80] The attack was named Operation True Promise[81] (Persian: وعده صادق, romanizedva'de-ye sādeq),[82] with the code name Ya Rasul Allah (یارسول‌الله(ص)).[83] It comprised more than 200 missiles and drones according to The Washington Post[78][79][84][85] and included ballistic missiles according to Iranian news agency IRNA.[86] Both CNN and Reuters later reported that more than 300 standoff weapons had been launched toward Israel.[87][88] An Israeli military spokesman specified that Iran had launched 170 drones, 30 cruise missiles, and 120 ballistic missiles.[27] According to IDF spokesperson Daniel Hagari, approximately 350 rockets were launched at Israel from Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Yemen, also noting that the attack consisted of 60 tons of explosive materials.[89][90]

According to the Iranian Chief of Staff Mohammad Bagheri, the primary targets included the Nevatim Airbase from which Israel launched the attack on the Iranian consulate, as well as the intelligence center in the Israeli-occupied part of Mount Hermon that supplied the intelligence. The operation was limited to a retaliatory attack for the Israeli attack on the Iranian consulate.[91][92] Other targets included the Ramon Airbase in the south of Israel,[93] Tel Aviv, and Dimona, which is home to a nuclear facility.[94] According to IRGC's Tasnim News Agency, the tactic used consisted of saturating the Iron Dome and David's Sling with a first wave of hundreds of HESA Shahed 136 kamikaze drones to clear the way for dozens of cruise and ballistic missiles in the second wave.[95] A total of 185 of the newer and faster-flying, jet-propelled Shahed 238 drones were also used.[96]

Hezbollah said it launched dozens of Grad rockets at an Israeli air defense site in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. The group said the attack took place shortly after midnight local time.[97] Houthis launched drones.[98]

To prepare for the attack, Israel, alongside Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Kuwait, closed their airspace on 13 April; Iran only closed its airspace to VFR flights,[99][100][101] and Egypt put its air defense on high alert.[102]

According to Or Fialkov, an Israeli military researcher, some of the missile types used by Iran were the Emad with a warhead of 750 kg, Ghadr-110 with a warhead of between 650 kg and 1000 kg, Kheibar Shekan with a 500 kg warhead, and probably Shahab-3B with a warhead of 700 kg.[11]

Israel's defensive operation

The Chief of the General Staff, LTG Herzi Halevi, conducting a situational assessment at the Israeli Air Force Operations Center in HaKirya, Tel Aviv.

Israel used the high-altitude Arrow 3 and the medium-range David's Sling systems to shoot down the incoming weapons,[19][20][103] and jammed electronic guidance systems to disrupt missile navigation.[104] IDF conducted the defense under the codename Iron Shield.[29] Many drones were downed while flying over Syria.[105] Israel said that 99% of the weapons were successfully intercepted,[27] and that its air force intercepted 25 cruise missiles outside the country, likely over Jordan.[106]

At approximately 2:00 a.m. local time on 14 April, explosions were heard in Jerusalem, while air raid sirens sounded across Israel, the West Bank, and the Dead Sea. It is not known whether the explosions were interceptions by the short-range Iron Dome system or were missile strikes.[107] Iranian missiles above the Al-Aqsa Mosque were intercepted.[108]

IDF jets struck military targets in southern Lebanon belonging to Hezbollah's Radwan forces.[109]

Defense provided by other countries

The United States coordinated the multinational defense of Israel, from northern Iraq to the southern Persian Gulf, from the Combined Air Operations Center at Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar.[106] The US, the United Kingdom, France and Jordan used their own forces to intercept Iranian projectiles,[110][111][112][113][114][24] and France also deployed its Navy to provide radar coverage.[115] An anonymous source from the Saudi royal family said that Saudi Arabia had automatically intercepted "any suspicious entity" violating its airspace.[116] According to The Wall Street Journal, Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates shared intelligence, which included radar tracking information, with the US and Israel prior to Iran's drone attack.[117][118][119]

American aircraft reportedly destroyed more than 80 Iranian weapons—more than half of those threatening Israel—before they reached their targets. The US did not announce where its aircraft launched from; whether any were based in Saudi Arabia is unclear.[106] Michael Kurilla, the head of United States Central Command (CENTCOM) went to Israel on 11 April, to coordinate air defenses.[120][121][122] CENTCOM reported late the following day that US forces destroyed more than 80 one-way attack drones and at least 6 ballistic missiles.[88] The US Navy warships involved were reported to be USS Carney (DDG-64) and USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) (both based in the Mediterranean), according to CENTCOM, which also reported that US aircraft from land and sea bases participated.[123] The ships' use of the SM-3 missile was the weapon's first time in combat.[124] A US Army Patriot missile battery in Erbil, Iraq, shot down at least one ballistic missile.[106]

The British component of the defence effort was overseen by Tony Radakin, the Chief of the Defence Staff.[125][126] Royal Air Force Typhoon fighter aircraft shot down an unspecified number of Iranian drones, as confirmed by British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak. The aircraft were deployed from RAF Akrotiri in the island of Cyprus as well as Romania and were supported by tanker aircraft.[127][128][129] The United Kingdom also provided intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance support.[130]

The Wall Street Journal, citing anonymous French officials, reported that France deployed naval assets to assist Israel.[115] President Emmanuel Macron later stated that France had joined in intercepting Iranian drones at Jordan's request.[24]

Jordan lies between Iran and Israel and had readied its air defenses to intercept drones and missiles that violated its airspace.[131] Iran had warned Jordan against any possible action in support of Israel,[132] but Jordan opened its airspace for US and Israeli war planes nonetheless.[133] Residents in the capital Amman reported seeing flashes in the sky above the city.[134] In the city's Marj al Hamam area residents gathered around the remnants of a large drone that had been intercepted.[114] Haaretz reported that the Royal Jordanian Air Force had downed 20% of the drones launched from Iran.[135][136] Jordan stated that its military action was an act of self-defense in an effort to safeguard the nation's airspace, territory, and citizens. There was also criticism towards Jordan's intervention that characterized it as having protected Israel.[137]

Casualties and damage

Iran claimed that the saturation tactic using drones managed to defeat the Israeli air defense and damage the bases used in the attack on the Iranian consulate.[138][95][92] Iran claimed that significant damage was inflicted on both airbases and an intelligence base in the Golan Heights.[83] Tasnim published videos of targets being hit.[92] However, several images published by Iranian state media showing damage in Israel were later found to be footage of wildfires in Chile instead.[139]

A senior US official stated that five Iranian ballistic missiles struck the Nevatim Airbase, causing damage to a C-130 transport aircraft, an unused runway, and empty storage facilities. Additionally, four other ballistic missiles impacted the Ramon Airbase.[4] The overall damage caused in the attack was minimal.[69]

There were no deaths but a number of injuries from the strikes were reported. A 7-year-old Bedouin girl, Amina Hassouna, was seriously injured by shrapnel from an interception in the Arad area.[6][140] At least 31 others were treated, either for minor injuries sustained from shrapnel while going to protected areas, or for anxiety.[7][9]

Aftermath

Hours after the beginning of the attacks, Iran's envoy to the United Nations stated that the retaliatory attack "can be deemed concluded", and that Iran will respond with "stronger and more resolute" actions if Israel were to "make another mistake". It also urged the US to stay away from the Iran–Israel conflict.[141][28][35] President Ebrahim Raisi said that Iran had taught a "lesson" to Israel through the attack as the Supreme Leader promised.[142] IRGC commander Hossein Salami called the attack "more successful than expected" and threatened retaliation for any Israeli counterattack. The IRGC also threatened to prosecute those expressing support for Israel online.[143][144][145] The Iranian government opened criminal investigations into several news outlets for their coverage of the strikes.[146]

Iraq, Jordan, and Israel reopened their airspace soon after the attacks were over.[147][148] At least two flights from Wizz Air and Royal Jordanian were diverted to Cyprus with over 700 passengers on board.[149][150] The Cyprus Air Command alongside the two main airports on Cyprus were also placed on high alert as a result of the attack.[151]

The effective interception has led to an increase in the stock prices of Israeli defense firms, such as Elbit Systems, Aerodrome Group, NextVision, and Aryt Industries.[152]

Following the attacks, the Iranian economy experienced immediate adverse effects, with the national currency, the rial, plummeting to a new low against the dollar.[153]

Israeli retaliatory strikes

Israel vowed to retaliate against Iran.[154] According to Israeli sources, Israel planned to initiate its first steps in a ground offensive in Rafah during the week, but postponed it to consider their response to the Iranian strikes on Israel.[155] The Israeli war cabinet met on 15 April to consider a response to the attack.[156] On 17 April, Benjamin Netanyahu stated Israel will "make our own decisions" on how to retaliate against Iran.[157]

On 18 April, Israel launched a series of retaliatory missile strikes on Iranian military sites. Reports indicate one of these attacks has occurred at a site near Isfahan. Iranian officials have also reported explosions at military sites in Syria and Iraq.[158]

Analysis

The Economist wrote that "the strike was militarily a flop", adding that Iran "may have miscalculated".[34] The Jerusalem Post noted that the Iranian attack demonstrated that the events of 7 October did not undermine the Israel–Sunni regional alliance.[159] According to H. A. Hellyer, a Middle East expert, the aim of the attack was not to harm Israel "with that level of warning".[160] According to CNN, the attack by Iran was "planned to minimize casualties while maximizing spectacle", and noted that Iranian drones and missiles went past Jordan and Iraq, both with US military bases, and all the air defenses before penetrating the airspace of Israel.[161] The Intercept reported that, according to American military sources, half of the Iranian weapons failed at launch or during flight.[106]

Dov Zakheim, a former undersecretary of defense in the George W. Bush administration, stated that "Iran is an existential threat in a way the Palestinian issue is not", thus bringing to the fore American deterrence vis-à-vis Iran.[162] John Bolton, however, called the attacks "a massive failure of Israeli and American deterrence"[163] and described Biden's disapproval of a possible counterattack as an embarrassment.[164] Al Jazeera opined that Iran, in no longer relying solely on its proxies, by launching its first attack on Israel from its own soil, its largest missile attack ever, and the largest drone strike in military history, has increased both its deterrence and its soft power in the wider Muslim world.[37] The Guardian stated that some analysts believed that Iran's attack had shattered Israeli deterrence policy.[165]

The Wall Street Journal attributed Israel's success to a combination of its "sophisticated air-defense system and critical assistance provided by the US and other Western and Arab partners,"[166] whilst The Times diplomatic editor Roger Boyes suggested that the attack "showed that Israel has only a limited self-sufficiency in security matters. It was dependent on US intelligence for the timing of the assault, for the location of many of the firing positions and on US, British and French assistance to help shoot down the incoming munitions".[167] According to The Times of Israel, Israel's capability of taking direct and comprehensive strategic action solely on its own initiative was henceforth constrained, and furthermore the calculus of deterrence throughout the region has been changed.[168] The more liberal Haaretz regarded America's assistance as, remarkably, its "most significant show of support in the history of Israeli-U.S. relations".[169]

An operational analysis by the Institute for the Study of War (ISW) concluded that the attack was likely intended to cause significant damage below the threshold that would trigger a massive Israeli response. The think tank also noted that the "attack package" followed the Russian doctrine used in air strikes against Ukraine during the Russian invasion, albeit on a much larger scale and in a single mission. ISW predicted that the lessons that Iran will learn from this attack will allow it to identify the relative strengths and weaknesses of Israel's air defense system and build more successful attack packages in the future, and possibly share these experiences with Russia as well.[170]

According to Reuters, analysts estimate that the cost for Israel and its allies to defend the attack was about $1 billion, while the cost to Iran for the attack was about $80 million to $100 million.[103] The current cost of Israel's short-range Iron Dome, medium-range David's Sling, and high-altitude Arrow 2 and Arrow 3 systems to intercept airborne threats is in the range of tens of thousands to millions of dollars, but future laser-based systems may substantially decrease the cost of each interception.[171]

Reactions

US President Joe Biden and his national security administration assessing the attack in the Situation Room.
UK Prime Minister Rishi Sunak during a call with G7 leaders discussing the attack.

Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian declared that Iran does not welcome escalation, and the purpose of the Iranian operation was the exercise of the legitimate right of Iran for self-defense.[172] The Iranian government declared its reprisal against Israel a success and concluded.[173] Major General Ahmad Haghtalab, the IRGC commander in charge of protecting the security of nuclear sites in Iran said they could change their nuclear doctrine if their nuclear facilities were threatened by Israel.[174]

Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Gallant said the IDF halted the attack impressively.[175] Gallant stated that the attack was successfully repelled with the assistance of the United States and other countries. He emphasized the opportunity to form a strategic alliance to counter the serious and possibly nuclear threat posed by Iran.[176] Israel vowed "a significant response" to Iran's retaliation.[177]

Hamas said that the Iranian military operation against Israel was a "natural right and a deserved response" to the Israeli bombing of the Iranian consulate in Damascus and assassination of IRGC leaders there.[178] The Houthis said that the attacks were a legitimate response to the strike on Iran's consulate in Damascus.[179]

On 14 April, Jordanian Prime Minister Bisher Khasawneh stated during a cabinet meeting that any regional escalation would lead to "dangerous paths", adding that all parties involved need to de-escalate.[180] On the same day, the country's Foreign Minister Ayman Safadi stated that Jordan would take "all necessary measures" to protect its sovereignty and security and that it will tackle threats facing its citizens.[181][182] Safadi stated that Jordan had summoned Iran's ambassador to protest "offensive statements" made in Iranian media, particularly about threats against Jordan being the next target if it joined in on the interceptions, calling it an interference in the country's internal affairs.[183] Safadi also added that Jordan would respond in the same way whether the threat came from Israel, Iran or any other country, and noted that the continuation of the Israel–Hamas war and instability in the West Bank would lead to further conflict, calling for a two state solution.[184] King Abdullah spoke with US President Joe Biden, stating that Jordan will not allow its land to become the center of a regional war.[185]

Iranian public

Women and children at a demonstration in Qazvin in support of the Iranian strikes in Israel, 16 April 2024

Demonstrations broke out in cities across Iran and in the Gaza Strip[186] in support of the strikes.[187]

The Front of Islamic Revolution Stability, a hardline Shia supremacist faction within Iran who are to Iran what the religious hard right are to Israel, endorsed the attacks and put up banners across Tehran's billboards in Hebrew, telling Israelis to stock up on supplies in preparation for another attack while some others concern that the aggressive foreign policy could lead to war.[153]

International

Canada and the United States both condemned the attack, and the United States said it would support Israel against Iran.[188][189] Saudi Arabia called for restraint, and said that the United Nations Security Council must take responsibility for maintaining peace and security in the region.[134]

On 14 April, protesters in Toronto cheered the airstrikes, chanting "Allahu Akbar!" A protest leader characterized the strikes as a response to Israeli airstrikes in the region, while Melissa Lantsman, a member of parliament, said that the chants showed "It was never about a ceasefire". Other chants included "Intifada, Intifada, long live the Intifada" and "From the water to the water, Palestine is Arab".[190]

One of the first leaders to respond to the attack was British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak, stating: "The UK will continue to stand up for Israel's security and that of all our regional partners, including Jordan and Iraq."[191][192] The United Kingdom condemned the Iranian attack on Israel as "reckless".[193]

US President Joe Biden shortened a planned visit to Delaware and returned to the White House to meet with national security officials.[194] Biden called the intercepted attacks a win for Israel,[195][196] and committed to a unified diplomatic response from the G7.[197] A White House spokesperson labelled the Iranian strikes a "spectacular and embarrassing failure".[198] The Embassy of the United States in Jerusalem posted a security alert urging its workers to seek shelter until further notice.[199] Biden told Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu that the United States would not back Israel in a possible future counterattack against Iran.[200][195] US Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin asked Israel to give the United States advance notice if they planned to attack Iran.[201] Overall, the US president sought to prevent further escalation.[202]

On 13 April, Cypriot President Nikos Christodoulides called for an emergency meeting of the National Security Council which was held on 14 April to discuss the developments in the region.[203][204] Additionally, the Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the attack on Israel.[205] Furthermore, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a precautionary measure enacted the "Estia" plan.[206][150]

On 16 April, Israel, the United States, the Netherlands and other countries called on the international community to impose sanctions on Iran's missile program.[207][208][209]

On 17 April, Jordan said Israeli retaliation for Iran strikes risked sparking wider regional war.[210]

Other countries

  •  Argentina: President Javier Milei expressed "solidarity and unwavering commitment" to Israel, and said he "emphatically support[s] the State of Israel in the defense of its sovereignty". Milei promised that Argentina "will always be on [Israel's] side."[211] Milei also accused Iran of "seeking the destruction of Western civilization."[212]
  •  Australia: Prime Minister Anthony Albanese condemned the Iranian attack and reiterated the necessity for sanctions against Iran.[213]
  •  Canada: Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said that Canada unequivocally condemns Iran's attacks against Israel, stands with Israel, and that "we support Israel's right to defend itself".[214]
  •  China: The Foreign Ministry urged restraint and called the attack "the latest spillover of the Gaza conflict".[215]
  •  Germany: Chancellor Olaf Scholz condemned the Iranian attack as "unjustifiable and highly irresponsible", and assured that "Germany stands by Israel".[216]
  •  India: The Ministry of External Affairs expressed deep concern over the heightened tensions between Israel and Iran and called for an immediate de-escalation.[217]
  •  Indonesia: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs warned citizens against travel to Iran and Israel effective 14 April.[218][219] It also asked both sides to deescalate tensions to prevent a full-scale war.[220] The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources suspended oil and gas importation from Iran on 15 April until further notice.[221]
  •  Japan: Prime Minister Fumio Kishida expressed "strong condemnation" and "deep concern" over the Iranian attack,[222] while Foreign Minister Yoko Kamikawa said the attack further aggravated the situation in the Middle East.[223]
  •  Russia: The Foreign Ministry said that it was very concerned by the Iranian strikes on Israel, calling it "another dangerous escalation in the region".[224] It said that Iran's retaliatory attack was in accordance with Article 51 of the UN Charter[225] and called for all parties to exercise restraint, adding that Russia had warned about an increase in tension because of "numerous unresolved crises in the Middle East".[224]
  •  Singapore: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the strikes on Israel and added that they "exacerbate tensions" and "further destabilise an already tense region".[226][227]
  •  South Korea: The government strongly condemned the Iranian attacks.[228]
  •  Turkey: Foreign Minister Hakan Fidan stated on a phone call to his Iranian counterpart that Turkey did not want further escalation following Iran's retaliation on Israel. The Iranian Foreign Minister told Fidan that its "retaliatory operation" against Israel had ended, adding that Iran would not launch a new operation unless it was attacked.[229]
  •  Ukraine: President Volodymyr Zelenskyy condemned the strikes on social media, saying "Iran's actions threaten the entire region and the world, just as Russia's actions threaten a larger conflict".[230] The Foreign Ministry condemned Iran's attack as "unacceptable and irresponsible" and called for efforts to prevent a "larger regional conflict".[231]
  •  Uruguay: The Ministry of Foreign Relations condemned the use of force by Iran and regretted the "worsening of the conflict, as well as the consequences it could entail for the humanitarian situation and civilian victims".[232] In addition, it confirmed that the Uruguayan embassies in the region were following the development of events.[233]

Supranational

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The attack was coordinated from the IRGC's Nabi Akram Base in Tehran, was under the overall command of IRGC Commander-in-Chief Major General Hossein Salami and with the presence of the Chief of the General Staff Major General Mohammad Bagheri, commander of the Khatam-al Anbiya Central Headquarters Major General Gholam Ali Rashid and IRGC Deputy Commander Brigadier General Ali Fadavi.[1][better source needed]
  2. ^ a b c Internationally recognized as Syrian territory, occupied and claimed by Israel, recognized as Israeli by the United States
  3. ^ Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Kuwait, and Israel

References

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  23. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  24. ^ a b c Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  25. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  26. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  27. ^ a b c Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  28. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  29. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  30. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  31. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  32. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  33. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  34. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  35. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  36. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  37. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  38. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  39. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  40. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  41. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  42. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  43. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  44. ^ a b c d Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  45. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  46. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  47. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  48. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  49. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  50. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  51. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  52. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  53. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  54. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  55. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  56. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  57. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  58. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  59. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  60. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  61. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  62. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  63. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  64. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  65. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  66. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  67. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  68. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  69. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  70. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  71. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  72. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  73. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  74. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  75. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  76. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  77. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  78. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  79. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  80. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  81. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  82. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  83. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  84. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  85. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  86. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  87. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  88. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  89. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  90. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  91. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  92. ^ a b c Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  93. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  94. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  95. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  96. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  97. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  98. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  99. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  100. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  101. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  102. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  103. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  104. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  105. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  106. ^ a b c d e Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  107. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  108. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  109. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  110. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  111. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  112. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  113. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  114. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  115. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  116. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  117. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  118. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  119. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  120. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  121. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  122. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  123. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  124. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  125. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  126. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  127. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  128. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  129. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  130. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  131. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  132. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  133. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  134. ^ a b Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  135. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  136. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  137. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  138. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  139. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  140. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  141. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  142. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  143. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  144. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  145. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  146. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  147. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  148. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  149. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  150. ^ a b Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  151. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  152. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  153. ^ a b Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  154. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  155. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  156. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  157. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  158. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  159. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  160. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  161. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  162. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  163. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  164. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  165. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  166. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  167. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  168. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  169. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  170. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  171. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  172. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  173. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  174. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  175. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  176. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  177. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  178. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  179. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  180. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  181. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  182. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  183. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  184. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  185. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  186. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  187. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  188. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  189. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  190. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  191. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  192. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  193. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  194. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  195. ^ a b Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  196. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  197. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  198. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  199. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  200. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  201. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  202. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  203. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  204. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  205. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  206. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  207. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  208. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  209. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  210. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  211. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  212. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  213. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  214. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  215. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  216. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  217. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  218. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  219. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  220. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  221. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  222. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  223. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  224. ^ a b Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  225. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  226. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  227. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  228. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  229. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  230. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  231. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  232. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  233. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  234. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  235. ^ Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".

External links

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Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".