Eurovision Song Contest 1990

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Eurovision Song Contest 1990
File:ESC 1990 logo.png
Dates
Final5 May 1990
Host
VenueVatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall
Zagreb, Yugoslavia
Presenter(s)Oliver Mlakar
Helga Vlahović
Musical directorSeadeta Midžić
Directed byNenad Puhovski
Executive supervisorFrank Naef
Executive producerGoran Radman
Host broadcasterJugoslavenska radiotelevizija (JRT)
Radiotelevizija Zagreb (RTV Zagreb)
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Participants
Number of entries22
Debuting countriesNone
Returning countriesNone
Non-returning countriesNone
  • A coloured map of the countries of EuropeBelgium in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Italy in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Netherlands in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Switzerland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Germany in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Monaco in the Eurovision Song ContestLuxembourg in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Ireland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Denmark in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Finland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Sweden in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Greece in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Malta in the Eurovision Song ContestAustria in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990France in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Turkey in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Yugoslavia in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Morocco in the Eurovision Song ContestCyprus in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990Iceland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990
         Participating countries     Countries that participated in the past but not in 1990
Vote
Voting systemEach country awarded 12, 10, 8-1 point(s) to their 10 favourite songs
Winning song Italy
"Insieme: 1992"
1989 ← Eurovision Song Contest → 1991

The Eurovision Song Contest 1990 was the 35th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, held on 5 May 1990 in the Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall in Zagreb, Yugoslavia.[a] Organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and host broadcaster Radiotelevizija Zagreb (RTV Zagreb) on behalf of Jugoslavenska radiotelevizija (JRT), and presented by Oliver Mlakar and Helga Vlahović, the contest was held in Yugoslavia following the country's victory at the 1989 contest with the song "Rock Me" by the group Riva. It was the first contest to be held in the Balkans and the first to be held in a socialist state.

Twenty-two countries participated in the contest, with the same countries that had participated in 1989 returning. The 1990 contest was the first to implement an age limit on the competing performers, following criticism of the participation of two child performers in the previous year's event; all artists were now required to reach the age of sixteen within the year of the contest.

The winner was Italy for the second time in its history, with the song "Insieme: 1992", written and performed by Toto Cutugno. France and Ireland shared second place, with Iceland and Spain rounding out the top five countries. France and Spain both placed within the top 5 for the first time in several years, while Iceland recorded their best ever result.

Location

Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall, Zagreb – host venue of the 1990 contest

The 1990 contest took place in Zagreb, Yugoslavia,[a] following the country's victory at the 1989 contest with the song "Rock Me", performed by the group Riva. It was the first time that Yugoslavia had hosted the contest, and marked the first time the contest had been held in the Balkans and the first edition to be held in a socialist state.[1][2] The chosen venue was the Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall (Croatian: Koncertna dvorana Vatroslava Lisinskog), named after the 19th-century Croatian composer Vatroslav Lisinski and whose main hall has an audience capacity of over 1,800.[3][4] Constructed between 1963 and 1971, the venue underwent significant renovation ahead of hosting the Eurovision Song Contest.[5][6]

Participating countries

Eurovision Song Contest 1990 – Participation summaries by country

The same twenty-two countries which had participated in 1989 returned for the 1990 contest; this marked the first time since 1972 that no changes to the composition of the competing countries were made compared to the previous event.[3][7]

Among the competing artists in this year's event was Ketil Stokkan who was representing Norway for the second time, having previously represented the country at the 1986 contest.[8] Additionally, Kari Kuivalainen, who had also competed in 1986 as Finland's entrant, returned as a backing vocalist for the Finnish group Beat, and the Slovene group Pepel in kri [sl] supported Italy's Toto Cutugno as backing vocalists, having previously represented Yugoslavia in the 1975 contest.[1][9][10]

Many of the competing songs made reference to the changing political and social landscape across the European continent following revolutions in Central and Eastern European countries in 1989 and spoke of the future of the European continent. The Finnish and German entries referenced the increasing freedoms experienced by citizens in countries formerly under repressive regimes, the Austrian and Norwegian entries harked back to the fall of the Berlin Wall six months prior and the opening of frontiers along the Iron Curtain between east and west Europe, while the Italian entry made reference to the planned signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 which would form the European Union and lead to greater European integration. Other social and political messages were also present among the competing entries, including a message for racial harmony from France, an ode to the environment from the United Kingdom, and Belgium's Philippe Lafontaine presenting a love song for his Macedonian wife.[1][11][12]

Participants of the Eurovision Song Contest 1990[8][13][14]
Country Broadcaster Artist Song Language Songwriter(s) Conductor
 Austria ORF Simone "Keine Mauern mehr" German
  • Mario Botazzi
  • Nanna Berry
  • Wolfgang Berry
Richard Oesterreicher
 Belgium RTBF Philippe Lafontaine "Macédomienne" French Philippe Lafontaine Rony Brack
 Cyprus CyBC Anastasiou "Milas poli" (Μιλάς πολύ) Greek
  • Haris Anastasiou
  • John Vickers
Stanko Selak
 Denmark DR Lonnie Devantier "Hallo Hallo" Danish Henrik Krogsgaard
 Finland YLE Beat "Fri?" Swedish
  • Janne Engblom
  • Kim Engblom
  • Stina Engblom
  • Tina Krause
Olli Ahvenlahti
 France Antenne 2 Joëlle Ursull "White and Black Blues" French
Régis Dupré
 Germany BR[b] Chris Kempers and Daniel Kovac "Frei zu leben" German Rainer Pietsch
 Greece ERT Christos Callow "Horis skopo" (Χωρίς σκοπό) Greek
  • Giorgos Palaiokastriris
  • Giorgos Papagiannakis
Mihalis Rozakis
 Iceland RÚV Stjórnin "Eitt lag enn" Icelandic
  • Aðalsteinn Ásberg Sigurðsson
  • Hörður G. Ólafsson
Jon Kjell Seljeseth
 Ireland RTÉ Liam Reilly "Somewhere in Europe" English Liam Reilly Noel Kelehan
 Israel IBA Rita "Shara Barkhovot" (שרה ברחובות) Hebrew Rami Levin
 Italy RAI Toto Cutugno "Insieme: 1992" Italian Toto Cutugno Gianni Madonini
 Luxembourg CLT Céline Carzo "Quand je te rêve" French
  • Thierry Delianis
  • Jean-Charles France
Thierry Durbet
 Netherlands NOS Maywood "Ik wil alles met je delen" Dutch Alice May Harry van Hoof
 Norway NRK Ketil Stokkan "Brandenburger Tor" Norwegian Ketil Stokkan Pete Knutsen
 Portugal RTP Nucha "Há sempre alguém" Portuguese
  • Luís Filipe
  • Francisco Teotónio Pereira
  • Frederico Teotónio Pereira
  • Jan van Dijck
Carlos Alberto Moniz
 Spain TVE Azúcar Moreno "Bandido" Spanish
  • José Luis Abel
  • Raúl Orellana
  • Jaime Stinus
Eduardo Leiva
 Sweden SVT Edin-Ådahl "Som en vind" Swedish Mikael Wendt Curt-Eric Holmquist
  Switzerland SRG SSR Egon Egemann "Musik klingt in die Welt hinaus" German Cornelia Lackner Bela Balint
 Turkey TRT Kayahan "Gözlerinin Hapsindeyim" Turkish Kayahan Açar Ümit Eroğlu
 United Kingdom BBC Emma "Give a Little Love Back to the World" English Paul Curtis Alyn Ainsworth
 Yugoslavia JRT Tajči "Hajde da ludujemo" (Хајде да лудујемо) Serbo-Croatian
Stjepan Mihaljinec

Production

Helga Vlahović (pictured in 1969) was one of the presenters of the contest.

The Eurovision Song Contest 1990 was produced by the Yugoslav public broadcaster Radiotelevizija Zagreb (RTV Zagreb) on behalf of Jugoslavenska radiotelevizija (JRT).[2] Goran Radman served as executive producer, Nenad Puhovski served as director, Zvjezdana Kvočić served as designer, Seadeta Midžić served as musical director, and Igor Kuljerić served as conductor leading an assembled orchestra, with assistance from Stanko Selak [hr].[3][16] A separate musical director could be nominated by each country to lead the orchestra during their performance, with the host conductors also available to conduct for those countries which did not nominate their own conductor.[8]

Following the confirmation of the twenty-two competing countries, the draw to determine the running order of the contest was held on 10 November 1989.[7][17]

Rehearsals for the participating artists began on 30 April 1990. Two technical rehearsals were conducted for each participating delegation in the week approaching the contest, with countries rehearsing in the order in which they would perform. The first rehearsals, comprising 15 minutes for stage set-up and 35 minutes for performances, were held on 30 April and 1 May. Following these rehearsals each delegation was provided an opportunity to watch back recordings of their performances and engage in a press conference. Each country's second rehearsals were held on 2 and 3 May and lasted 35 minutes total, followed by another viewing session and press conference. Three dress rehearsals were held with all artists, two held in the afternoon and evening of 4 May and one final rehearsal in the afternoon of 5 May. An audience was present during the two dress rehearsals held on 4 May; the final dress rehearsal on 5 May was also recorded for use as a production standby for use should broadcast of the live event became impossible.[7]

During the week of rehearsals, problems arose regarding the choice of presenters for the event. Oliver Mlakar and Helga Vlahović had been selected to host the contest, officially announced publicly in March 1990, however a second couple, Rene Medvešek and Dubravka Marković [sh], had also been chosen as a reserve hosting pair.[7][18] No agreement on which duo would host the contest had been settled going into the rehearsal week however, and screen tests of the voting sequence with the contest's executive supervisor Frank Naef were scheduled to determine which of the pairings would get the job.[19] The ages of Mlakar and Vlahović, respectively 54 and 45 years old at the time, had also resulted in criticism from press outlets ahead of the contest.[1] Subsequently Mlakar and Vlahović walked away during rehearsals on the Wednesday before the event and announced their resignations as show hosts, leading to a hastily arranged press conference to announce Medvešek and Marković as their replacements.[7][19] Meetings held behind closed doors over the following 24 hours however led to Mlakar and Vlahović returning to the contest as the show's presenters.[7][20]

For the first time in its history the contest featured an official mascot, "Eurocat", an animated anthropomorphic cat created by the Croatian illustrator Joško Marušić.[1][21] Eurocat featured within the video postcards which served as an introduction to each country's entry, as well as providing an opportunity for transition between entries and allow stage crew to make changes on stage.[1][22][23] The postcards for the 1990 contest centered around the theme of tourism, in conjunction with 1990 being the European Year of Tourism; each participating country commissioned their own postcard to highlight their country as a tourist destination, with Eurocat introducing these clips while highlighting cultural stereotypes associated with the competing countries.[1]

With the advent of music videos during the 1980s, the television production of the contest also adapted to new aesthetics as it entered the 1990s; in contrast to previous editions, the 1990 contest saw an increased use of dynamic camera direction, with footage captured from cameras moving to and around the stage during the performances and showing angles that could not be seen by spectators in the auditorium.[24] This change in the visual aesthetics was part of a transition which made elaborately staged performances possible, bearing similarities to music videos and which went on to develop throughout the 1990s and into editions of the contest held during the twenty-first century.[24][25]

Format

Each participating broadcaster submitted one song, which was required to be no longer than three minutes in duration and performed in the language, or one of the languages, of the country which it represented.[26][27] A maximum of six performers were allowed on stage during each country's performance.[26][28] Each entry could utilise all or part of the live orchestra and could use instrumental-only backing tracks, however any backing tracks used could only include the sound of instruments featured on stage being mimed by the performers.[28][29] The 1990 contest was the first to implement restrictions on the age of the performers, following criticism of the young age of the Israeli and French entrants in the previous year's contest, 12-year-old Gili Netanel [he] and 11-year-old Nathalie Pâque respectively. For the 1990 event performers were required to be at least 16 years old in the year they competed in the event; although the United Kingdom had selected 15-year-old Emma as their representative, as she turned 16 later in the year she was still eligible to compete.[1][3] The introduction of this rule, which remains in effect as of 2023 but which now specifies that the contestant must be 16 years old on the day of the contest final, means that Sandra Kim, who won the contest in 1986 for Belgium at the age of 13, will hold the record of the youngest ever Eurovision winner in perpetuity, barring any further changes to the rule.[28][30]

The results of the 1990 contest were determined through the same scoring system as had first been introduced in 1975: each country awarded twelve points to its favourite entry, followed by ten points to its second favourite, and then awarded points in decreasing value from eight to one for the remaining songs which featured in the country's top ten, with countries unable to vote for their own entry.[31] The points awarded by each country were determined by an assembled jury of sixteen individuals, who were all required to be members of the public with no connection to the music industry, split evenly between men and women and by age. Each jury member voted in secret and awarded between one and ten votes to each participating song, excluding that from their own country and with no abstentions permitted. The votes of each member were collected following the country's performance and then tallied by the non-voting jury chairperson to determine the points to be awarded. In any cases where two or more songs in the top ten received the same number of votes, a show of hands by all jury members was used to determine the final placing.[32][33]

Contest overview

Toto Cutugno (pictured in 1980) won the contest for Italy, their second victory in the event.

The contest took place on 5 May 1990 at 21:00 (CEST) with a duration of 2 hours and 47 minutes and was presented by Oliver Mlakar and Helga Vlahović.[3][8]

The contest was opened with a pre-recorded film entitled Zagreb: City of Music, which showcased various locations in Zagreb and featured performances of various musical styles and genres. Another pre-recorded film featured during the interval between the competing entries and the voting sequence; entitled Yugoslav Changes, which highlighted the various cultures, landscapes, cuisines and industries within Yugoslavia.[1][34][35] The trophy awarded to the winners was presented at the end of the broadcast by the contest's executive producer Goran Radman.[34]

The contest's first entry suffered from a technical incident. The conductor of the Spanish entry was unable to hear the backing track, as the sound engineers had failed to raise the volume of the tape, and could not cue the orchestra to commence on time. When the volume was eventually raised the track was already partway through the song, meaning the orchestra and performers were out of sync with the tape, resulting in the two Salazar sisters of Azúcar Moreno leaving the stage as the backing tape continued to play. The tape was ultimately reset and the performance restarted with no further issues.[1][8][11]

The winner was Italy represented by the song "Insieme: 1992", written and performed by Toto Cutugno.[36] It was Italy's second win in the contest, following their first victory in 1964.[1][37] At 46 years old Cutugno became the oldest Eurovision winner at that point.[38][39] France achieved their first top 5 placing since 1981, placing equal second with Ireland, while Iceland's fourth place finish was the country's best ever result to that point.[1][40] Spain also achieved their best finish since 1984, placing fifth.[1] The 1990 contest marks the last time that the future "Big Five" countries all placed within the top 10: alongside Italy's first place, France's equal second place and Spain's fifth place finished, the United Kingdom placed sixth and Germany placed ninth.[1]

Results of the Eurovision Song Contest 1990[8][41]
R/O Country Artist Song Points Place
1  Spain Azúcar Moreno "Bandido" 96 5
2  Greece Christos Callow "Horis skopo" 11 19
3  Belgium Philippe Lafontaine "Macédomienne" 46 12
4  Turkey Kayahan "Gözlerinin Hapsindeyim" 21 17
5  Netherlands Maywood "Ik wil alles met je delen" 25 15
6  Luxembourg Céline Carzo "Quand je te rêve" 38 13
7  United Kingdom Emma "Give a Little Love Back to the World" 87 6
8  Iceland Stjórnin "Eitt lag enn" 124 4
9  Norway Ketil Stokkan "Brandenburger Tor" 8 21
10  Israel Rita "Shara Barkhovot" 16 18
11  Denmark Lonnie Devantier "Hallo Hallo" 64 8
12   Switzerland Egon Egemann "Musik klingt in die Welt hinaus" 51 11
13  Germany Chris Kempers and Daniel Kovac "Frei zu leben" 60 9
14  France Joëlle Ursull "White and Black Blues" 132 2
15  Yugoslavia Tajči "Hajde da ludujemo" 81 7
16  Portugal Nucha "Há sempre alguém" 9 20
17  Ireland Liam Reilly "Somewhere in Europe" 132 2
18  Sweden Edin-Ådahl "Som en vind" 24 16
19  Italy Toto Cutugno "Insieme: 1992" 149 1
20  Austria Simone "Keine Mauern mehr" 58 10
21  Cyprus Anastasiou "Milas poli" 36 14
22  Finland Beat "Fri?" 8 21

Spokespersons

Each country nominated a spokesperson, connected to the contest venue via telephone lines and responsible for announcing, in English or French, the votes for their respective country.[26][42] Known spokespersons at the 1990 contest are listed below.

Detailed voting results

Jury voting was used to determine the points awarded by all countries.[32] The announcement of the results from each country was conducted in the order in which they performed, with the spokespersons announcing their country's points in English or French in ascending order.[35][32] The detailed breakdown of the points awarded by each country is listed in the tables below.

Detailed voting results of the Eurovision Song Contest 1990[45][46]
Total score
Spain
Greece
Belgium
Turkey
Netherlands
Luxembourg
United Kingdom
Iceland
Norway
Israel
Denmark
Switzerland
Germany
France
Yugoslavia
Portugal
Ireland
Sweden
Italy
Austria
Cyprus
Finland
Contestants
Spain 96 8 1 10 2 1 4 5 6 12 5 3 5 8 8 8 10
Greece 11 5 6
Belgium 46 7 4 1 4 8 8 2 1 7 4
Turkey 21 3 2 4 5 7
Netherlands 25 1 3 1 4 2 3 6 1 2 2
Luxembourg 38 4 3 3 12 2 3 1 5 5
United Kingdom 87 7 5 12 3 10 3 10 1 10 10 6 6 1 3
Iceland 124 4 3 10 1 8 12 10 8 10 7 4 12 7 8 3 10 7
Norway 8 4 1 3
Israel 16 4 2 4 1 5
Denmark 64 6 3 2 7 7 7 1 7 4 3 7 6 4
Switzerland 51 1 12 6 2 12 1 5 8 1 3
Germany 60 8 6 12 7 1 4 10 4 5 3
France 132 5 4 4 12 12 12 6 5 12 10 12 4 8 5 2 7 12
Yugoslavia 81 3 12 5 10 3 12 7 2 5 1 10 10 1
Portugal 9 7 2
Ireland 132 10 7 7 5 10 6 10 8 8 8 5 7 7 6 12 12 4
Sweden 24 2 2 6 6 6 2
Italy 149 12 10 8 8 8 10 3 1 6 8 6 4 6 10 12 10 7 12 8
Austria 58 2 7 1 5 8 6 3 8 2 2 12 2
Cyprus 36 6 5 2 5 2 6 4 6
Finland 8 5 3

12 points

The below table summarises how the maximum 12 points were awarded from one country to another. The winning country is shown in bold. France received the maximum score of 12 points from six of the voting countries, with Italy receiving three sets of 12 points, Iceland, Ireland, Switzerland and Yugoslavia receiving two sets of maximum scores each, and Austria, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom each receiving one maximum score.[45][46]

Distribution of 12 points awarded at the Eurovision Song Contest 1990[45][46]
N. Contestant Nation(s) giving 12 points
6  France  Finland,  Iceland,  Netherlands,  Norway,   Switzerland,  Yugoslavia
3  Italy  Cyprus,  Ireland,  Spain
2  Iceland  Portugal,  United Kingdom
 Ireland  Austria,  Sweden
  Switzerland  Denmark,  Greece
 Yugoslavia  Israel,  Turkey
1  Austria  Italy
 Germany  Luxembourg
 Luxembourg  France
 Spain  Germany
 United Kingdom  Belgium

Broadcasts

Each participating broadcaster was required to relay the contest via its networks. Non-participating member broadcasters were also able to relay the contest as "passive participants". Broadcasters were able to send commentators to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language and to relay information about the artists and songs to their television viewers.[28] In addition to the participating countries, a number of additional non-participating countries were name-checked by Helga Vlahović during the event as also broadcasting the contest, specifically Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Romania, South Korea and the Soviet Union.[35] Known details on the broadcasts in each country, including the specific broadcasting stations and commentators are shown in the tables below.

Broadcasters and commentators in participating countries
Country Broadcaster Channel(s) Commentator(s) Ref(s)
 Austria ORF FS1 Barbara Stöckl [47][48]
 Belgium RTBF RTBF1 Claude Delacroix [49][50]
BRT TV2 Luc Appermont [51]
BRT 2 [52]
 Cyprus CyBC RIK [53]
A Programma [54]
 Denmark DR DR TV Jørgen de Mylius [55]
DR P3 Karlo Staunskær [dk] and Kurt Helge Andersen
 Finland YLE TV1 Erkki Pohjanheimo and Ossi Runne [56][57]
2-verkko [fi] [56]
 France Antenne 2 Richard Adaridi [58]
 Germany ARD Erstes Deutsches Fernsehen Fritz Egner [47][59]
 Greece ERT ET1 [60]
 Iceland RÚV Sjónvarpið, Rás 1 Arthúr Björgvin Bollason [61]
 Ireland RTÉ RTÉ 1 Jimmy Greeley and Clíona Ní Bhuachalla [62][63]
RTÉ Radio 1 Larry Gogan [64]
 Israel IBA Israeli Television [65]
Reshet Gimel [he]
 Italy RAI Rai Due[c] Peppi Franzelin [it] [66][67]
 Luxembourg CLT
 Netherlands NOS Nederland 3 Willem van Beusekom [51]
 Norway NRK NRK Fjernsynet, NRK P2 Leif Erik Forberg [68][69]
 Portugal RTP RTP Canal 1 [70]
 Spain TVE TVE 2 Luis Cobos [71]
 Sweden SVT TV2 Jan Jingryd [sv] [44][68]
RR [sv] SR P3 Kersti Adams-Ray [sv] [44][68]
  Switzerland SRG SSR SRG Sportkette [de] Bernard Thurnheer [de] [47]
SSR Chaîne sportive
TSI Canale sportivo
 Turkey TRT TV1 [72]
 United Kingdom BBC BBC1, BBC TV Europe Terry Wogan [8][68][73]
BBC Radio 2 Ken Bruce [8][74]
 Yugoslavia JRT TV Beograd 1 [75]
TV Ljubljana 1 [sl] [76]
TV Zagreb 1 [77]
Radio Zagreb 1
Broadcasters and commentators in non-participating countries
Country Broadcaster Channel(s) Commentator(s) Ref(s)
 Australia SBS SBS TV[d] [78]
 Estonian SSR ETV [56][79]
 Poland TVP TVP1[e] [80]
 Soviet Union CT USSR Programme One [79]

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ a b In the Socialist Republic of Croatia, now present-day Croatia
  2. ^ On behalf of the German public broadcasting consortium ARD[15]
  3. ^ Deferred broadcast at 23:20 CEST (21:20 UTC)[66]
  4. ^ Deferred broadcast on 6 May at 19:30 AEST (09:30 UTC)[78]
  5. ^ Delayed broadcast on 19 May 1990 at 21:05 CEST (19:05 UTC)[80]

References

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  40. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
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  42. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  43. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  44. ^ a b c Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  45. ^ a b c Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  46. ^ a b c Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  47. ^ a b c Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  48. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  49. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  50. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  51. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  52. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  53. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  54. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  55. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  56. ^ a b c Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  57. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  58. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  59. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  60. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  61. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  62. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  63. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  64. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  65. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  66. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  67. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  68. ^ a b c d Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  69. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value). (subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries)
  70. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  71. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  72. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  73. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  74. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  75. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  76. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  77. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  78. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  79. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).
  80. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index field '?' (a nil value).

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